ES (ECMAScript)

ECMA is a standardization organization that issues the technical specification on which e.g. JavaScript as well as less known languages like JScript and ActionScript are based.

The standard ECMA-262 defines the ECMAScript general-purpose programming language. It describes syntax rules, basic object types, and how programs are processed while being rather abstract and excluding framework characteristic. Instead, ECMAScript defines a versatile meta-language and basic framework for many possible programming languages.