Difference between ».apply()«, ».call()« and ».bind()« in JavaScript

When working with functions in JavaScript, the value of this and the functions’ arguments are important. .apply(), .call() and .bind() allow you to change this inside a function and pass arguments in different ways.

The difference between .apply() and .call() is that .apply() lets you invoke the function with arguments as an array while .call() requires the arguments to be listed explicitly.

A useful mnemonic for this is…

  • apply() for arguments as an array
  • call() for comma-separated arguments

Let’s have a look at a simple example to understand what this means.

function demo(name, age) {
    alert('My name is ' + name + ' and I am ' + age + ' years old');

demo('John', 25);

demo.apply(this, ['John', 25]);

demo.call(this, 'John', 25);

All three function calls above do exactly the same. Both .apply() and .call() can be called on functions, which they run in the context (= the root scope in this case) of the first argument. Thus, you can use .apply() if you don’t know the number of arguments you’ll be passing or if the arguments are already in an array or array-like object (like the arguments object) and use .call() otherwise since there’s no need to wrap the arguments in an array.

Whereas .bind() is used when you want a function to later be called with a certain context—which is useful in events. While .apply() and .call() call the function immediately, .bind() creates and returns a new function that—when executed later—will have the correct context (= bound to a different this) set for calling the original function. This way you can maintain context in asynchronous callbacks and events.

var pollute = function () {
    this.innerHTML = 'Demo';

document.getElementById('demo').addEventListener('click', function () {
  window.setTimeout(pollute.bind(this), 1000);

You can also append extra parameters after the first parameter and .bind() will pass those values into the original function before passing in the extra parameters you pass to the bound function.

var sum = function (a, b) {
    return a + b;

var addTo = sum.bind(this, 123);

console.log(addTo(456)); // = 579